Target Audience 

This activity is intended for infectious disease and HIV specialists engaged in the care of patients with HIV. 

Program Description 

Black women experience not only a disproportionate burden of HIV diagnoses compared with women of other races, but Black women with HIV also experience more morbidity and mortality than White women with HIV. The underlying cause of this racial and ethnic disparity is multifactorial and may include factors such as mental health, stigma, and challenges in other social determinants of health. Dr. Onyema Ogbuagu and Dr. Aimalohi Ahonkhai review the multiple elements that can contribute to poor outcomes in Black women with HIV, and offer some helpful strategies for gaining patient trust, improving engagement in health care, and supporting individual patient needs in the clinical setting.

Educational Objective 

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be better prepared to:

  • Optimize clinical practice to address the needs of special or underserved patient populations 


Onyema Ogbuagu, MBBCh, FACP, FIDSA 
Associate Professor of Medicine
Director, HIV Clinical Trials Program
Section of Infectious Diseases
Yale School of Medicine
New Haven, Connecticut 

Aimalohi Ahonkhai, MD, MPH 
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
Co-Director, Centers for AIDS Research and Scientific Working Group on Social Determinants of Health
Co-Director, HIV Adolescent Transition Clinic
Vanderbilt University Medical Center
Nashville, Tennessee 

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest 

PACE requires instructors, planners, managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of this activity to disclose all financial relationships they may have with ineligible companies. All relevant financial relationships are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to PACE policy. PACE is committed to providing learners with high-quality accredited CE activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company. 

The faculty reported the following relevant financial relationships with ineligible entities related to the educational content of this CME/CE activity: 

Onyema Ogbuagu, MBBCh, FACP, FIDSA: Consulting Fees: Gilead Sciences, Inc., ViiV Healthcare. Advisory Board: Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 

Aimalohi Ahonkhai, MD, MPH:Consulting Fees/Advisory Board/Speaker: CME Outfitters, LLC, DKBmed, HSC Acquisition, LLC, Vindico Medical Education, LLC 

The PACE planners and others have nothing to disclose. The Integritas Communications planners and others have nothing to disclose. 

Instructions to Receive Credit 

To receive credit for this activity, participants must complete the preactivity questionnaire, complete and receive a score of 100% on the posttest, and complete the program evaluation. 

Fee Information  

There is no fee for this educational activity. 

Joint Accreditation Statement

In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by Partners for Advancing Clinical Education (PACE) and Integritas Communications.  PACE is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.

Physician Continuing Education 

PACE designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity. 

Continuing Nursing Education 

The maximum number of hours awarded for this Continuing Nursing Education activity is 0.25 contact hours. 

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use 

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration.  The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.  The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners.  Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings. 


Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development.  The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management.  Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patients’ conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer's product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities. 

CME Questions – PACE Contact Information 

For information about the accreditation of this program, please contact PACE

Integritas Contact Information 

For all other questions regarding this activity, please contact Integritas via email at 

Computer System Requirements 

1.4 GHz Intel Pentium 4 or faster processor (or equivalent)
Windows 10, 8.1 (32-bit/64-bit), Windows 7 (32-bit/64-bit)
512 MB of RAM (1 GB recommended)
Microsoft Internet Explorer 11 or later, Windows Edge browser, Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome
For HTML Client – Google Chrome (v70.0 & above), Mozilla Firefox (v65.0 & above), and Edge (v42.0 & above) 

1.83 GHz Intel Core Duo or faster processor
512 MB of RAM (1 GB recommended)
MAC OS X 10.12, 10.13 and 10.14
Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, Google Chrome
For HTML Client – Google Chrome (v70.0 & above), Apple Safari (v12.0 & above), and Mozilla Firefox (v65.0 & above) 

Begin Activity
available resources
linked resources
Suggested Reading

Answers to Everyday Practice Challenges in HIV Medicine

A Phone-a-Friend CME Series – Volume 2