Controversies in Managing Resistance Module 5

Richard A. Elion, MD; J├╝rgen Rockstroh, MD

Jointly provided by Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and Integritas Communications.


This activity is supported by an independent educational grant from Gilead Sciences, Inc.

Target Audience

This activity is intended for HIV specialists engaged in the care of patients with HIV.

Program Description

Though first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have high barriers to resistance, it is still important to obtain genotyping for newly diagnosed patients and for those experiencing virologic failure. There is evidence that patients with a variety of resistance mutations can still achieve viral suppression, though regimen selection may be influenced by resistance mutations. Dr. Richard Elion and Dr. Jürgen Rockstroh discuss a newly diagnosed patient with baseline resistance mutations in the context of treatment initiation, switching, impact of specific mutations, and how resistance mutations influence selection of either 2-drug or long-acting therapies.

Educational Objective

After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:

  • Address the challenges faced when selecting subsequent ART regimens in patients experiencing virologic failure


Richard A. Elion, MD
Clinical Professor of Medicine
George Washington University, School of Medicine
Washington, District of Columbia

Jürgen Rockstroh, MD
Professor of Medicine
Head of the HIV Outpatient Clinic
University of Bonn
Bonn, Germany

Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest

Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) requires faculty, planners, and others in control of educational content to disclose all their financial relationships with ineligible companies. All identified conflicts of interest (COI) are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to PIM policy.  PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality accredited continuing education activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in health care and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company.

The faculty reported the following relevant financial relationships with ineligible entities related to the educational content of this CME/CE activity:

Richard A. Elion, MD: Consulting Fees: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., ViiV Healthcare; Speakers Bureaus: Gilead Sciences, Inc., ViiV Healthcare; Other: Work with Trio Health doing research funded by multiple companies

Jürgen Rockstroh, MD: Consulting Fees: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Global Services, LLC, Merck & Co., Inc., Theratechnologies Inc., ViiV Healthcare; Speakers Bureaus: Gilead Sciences, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., ViiV Healthcare

The PIM planners and others have nothing to disclose. The Integritas Communications planners and others have nothing to disclose.

Instructions to Receive Credit

To receive credit for this activity, participants must complete the preactivity questionnaire, complete and receive a score of 100% on the posttest, and complete the program evaluation.

Joint Accreditation Statement

In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by PIM and Integritas Communications. PIM is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the health care team.

Physician Continuing Medical Education

The Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Continuing Nursing Education

The maximum number of hours awarded for this Continuing Nursing Education activity is 0.25 contact hours.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use

This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration.  The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.  The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners.  Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.


Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development.  The information presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management.  Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patients’ conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer's product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.

Fee Information & Refund/Cancellation Policy

There is no fee for this educational activity.

CME Questions – PIM Contact Information

For information about the accreditation of this program, please contact PIM via email at or at

Integritas Contact Information

For all other questions regarding this monograph, please contact Integritas via email at

Computer System Requirements

Microsoft Windows 2000 SE or above.
Internet Explorer (v5.5 or greater), Chrome or Firefox MAC

MAC OS 10.2.8:
Internet Explorer is not supported on the Macintosh.

Click "Begin Activity" to acknowledge that you have reviewed the preamble information for this activity.

Begin Activity

credit amount 0.25

credit type CME/CE

release 11/15/2021

expiration 11/15/2022

type Webcast Series