Suggested Readings

Once-daily single-inhaler triple versus dual therapy in patients with COPD.

Lipson DA, et al. N Engl J Med. 2018; 378(18):1671-1680.

The effect of exacerbation history on outcomes in the IMPACT trial.

Halpin DMG, et al. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(5):1901921.

Reduction in all-cause mortality with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Lipson DA, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020; 201(12):1508–1516.

An updated definition and severity classification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: the Rome Proposal.

Celli BR, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021;204(11):1251-1258.

Triple inhaled therapy at two glucocorticoid doses in moderate-to-very-severe COPD.

Rabe KF, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(1):35-48.

Reduced all-cause mortality in the ETHOS trial of budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.

Martinez FJ, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021;203(5):553-564.

PRIMUS—Prompt Initiation of Maintenance Therapy in the US: a real-world analysis of clinical and economic outcomes among patients initiating triple therapy following a COPD exacerbation.

Tkacz J, et al. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2022;17:329-342.

INTREPID: single- versus multiple-inhaler triple therapy for COPD in usual clinical practice.

Halpin DMG, et al. ERJ Open Res. 2021;7(2):00950-02020.

Triple therapy in COPD: can we welcome the reduction in cardiovascular risk and mortality?

Solidoro P, et al. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022;23(9):816843.

Metoprolol for the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD.

Dransfield MT, et al. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(24):2304-2314.

Effects of dapagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of DAPA-HF.

Dewan P, et al. Eur J Heart Fail. 2021;23(4):632-643.

Linked Resources


Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). 2023 report.


The COPD Foundation Pocket Consultant Guide Mobile App

The COPD Pocket Guide, provided by the COPD Foundation, contains comprehensive management information as well as resource tools. It can be downloaded onto any mobile device.

Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnea Scale

The mMRC scale, provided by MDCalc, allows for the baseline stratification of dyspnea in COPD, as well as other respiratory diseases.

COPD Control Questionnaire (CCQ)

The CCQ measures health status and can be used to assess health-related quality of life.

COPD Assessment Test (CAT)

The CAT allows assessment of the global impact of COPD (cough, sputum, dyspnea, chest tightness) on patient health status.

COPD Action Plan

The COPD Action Plan, provided by the American Lung Association, is a tool that facilitates the prevention, timely identification, and early and appropriate treatment of COPD exacerbations.

ATS Telemedicine Information Series

The American Thoracic Society offers patients educational materials on telemedicine as well as answers to frequently asked questions surrounding this topic.


The COPD Foundation Pocket Consultant Guide Patient-Focused Mobile App

The COPD Pocket Guide for Patients was designed to improve disease management and communication with a patient’s health care team. It includes patient resources such as inhaler and exercise videos as well as tools such as the wallet card and daily symptom tracker that help collect and share information with the health care team. It can be downloaded onto any mobile device.

American Lung Association

The American Lung Association is the leading organization working to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through education, advocacy, and research.

COPD Foundation

The COPD Foundation’s mission is to prevent and cure COPD and to improve the lives of all people affected by COPD.

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)

GOLD partners with health care professionals and public health officials to raise awareness of COPD and to improve prevention and treatment of this lung disease for patients around the world.

National Jewish Health

National Jewish Health integrates the latest scientific discoveries with coordinated care for lung, heart, and immune diseases. Their Patient Education Program provides many free educational opportunities and support groups to assist patients and caregivers with managing illnesses and chronic conditions, such as COPD.

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