Scientific Insights Into LDL-C, PCSK9, and CV RISKS
Familial hypercholesterolemia: screening, diagnosis and management of pediatric and adult patients: clinical guidance from the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
Goldberg AC, et al. J Clin Lipid. 2011;5(3 Suppl):S1-S8
Management of familial hypercholesterolemia: a review of the recommendations from the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
Robinson JG. J Manage Care Pharm. 2013;19(2):139-149.
Understanding Statin Use in America and Gaps in Patient Education (USAGE): an internet-based survey of 10,138 current and former statin users.
Cohen JD, et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2012;6(3):208-215.
An assessment by the Statin Muscle Safety Task Force: 2014 update.
Rosenson RS, et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2014;8(3Suppl):S58-S71.
Anti-PCSK9 antibody effectively lowers cholesterol in patients with statin intolerance: the GAUSS-2 randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 clinical trial of evolocumab.
Stroes E, et al. Am J Cardiol. 2014;63(23):2541-2548.
Monotherapy with the PCSK9 inhibitor alirocumab versus ezetimibe in patients with hypercholesterolemia: results of a 24 week, double-blind, randomized Phase 3 trial.
Roth EM, et al. Intern J Cardiol. 2014;176(1):55-61.
Anti-PCSK9 monotherapy for hypercholesterolemia: the MENDEL-2 randomized, controlled phase III clinical trial of evolocumab.
Koren MJ, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(23):2531-2540.
Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events.
Robinson JG, et al. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(16):1489-1499.
Efficacy and safety of evolocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events.
Sabatine MS, et al. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(16):1500-1509.
Efficacy and safety of alirocumab vs ezetimibe in statin-intolerant patients, with a statin rechallenge arm: The ODYSSEY ALTERNATIVE randomized trial.
Moriarty PM, et al. J Clin Lipid. 2015;9:758-769.
Efficacy and Tolerability of Evolocumab vs Ezetimibe in Patients With Muscle-Related Statin Intolerance: The GAUSS-3 Randomized Clinical Trial.
Nissen SE, et al. JAMA. 2016;315(15):1580-1590.
ODYSSEY FH I and FH II: 78 week results with alirocumab treatment in 735 patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.
Kastelein JJP, et al. Euro Heart J. 2015;36(43):2996-3003.
PCSK9 inhibition with evolocumab (AMG 145) in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (RUTHERFORD-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Raal FJ, et al. Lancet. 2015;385(9965):331-340.
Inhibition of PCSK9 with evolocumab in homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (TESLA Part B): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Raal FJ, et al. Lancet. 2015;385(9965):341-350.
Alirocumab as Add-On to Atorvastatin Versus Other Lipid Treatment Strategies: ODYSSEY OPTIONS I Randomized Trial.
Bays H, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100(8):3140-3148.
Ezetimibe Added to Statin Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndromes.
Cannon CP, et al. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(25):2387-2397.
Achievement of dual low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein targets more frequent with the addition of ezetimibe to simvastatin and associated with better outcomes in IMPROVE-IT.
Bohula EA, et al. Circulation. 2015;132(13):1224-1233.
Safety and efficacy of anti-PCSK9 antibodies: a meta-analysis of 25 randomized, controlled trials.
Zhang XL, et al. BMC Medicine. 2015;13(123):1-18.
2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.
Stone NJ, et al. Circulation. 2014;129(25 suppl 2):S1-S45.
National Lipid Association Recommendations For Patient-Centered Management Of Dyslipidemia: Part 1-Full Report.
Jacobson TA, et al. J Clin Lipidol. 2015;9(2):129-169.
2016 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on the Role of Non-Statin Therapies for LDL-Cholesterol Lowering in the Management of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk.
Lloyd-Jones DM, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;pii:S0735-1097(16)32398-1.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
High cholesterol education materials for patients about high cholesterol.
American Heart Association
Resources on managing hyperlipidemia means controlling cholesterol and triglycerides.
The FH Foundation
A patient-centered nonprofit organization dedicated to education, advocacy, and research on familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).
Clinical Assessment Tools
ASCVD Risk Estimator
A companion tool to the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk and the 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults (Goff DC, et al. JACC. 2014;633(25):2935-2959).
Reynolds Risk Score
A framework for calculating heart and stroke risk for women and men (Ridker PM, et al. JAMA. 2007;297:611-619).
Risk Assessment Tool for Estimating 10-year Risk of Having a Heart Attack
A tool developed based on the Framingham Heart Study (Wilson PW, et al. Circulation. 1998;97(18):1837-1847).