Do benefits outweigh risks for corticosteroid therapy in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in people with diabetes mellitus?
Aldibbiat AM, Al-Sharefi A. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2020;15:567-574.
Antibiotics and chronic kidney disease: Dose adjustment update for infectious disease clinical practice.
Aloy B, et al. Med Mal Infect. 2020;50(4):323-331.
Targeting mechanisms linking COPD to type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Cazzola M, Rogliani P, Calzetta L, Lauro D, Page C, Matera MG. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017;38(10):940-951.
Chronic kidney disease: A likely underestimated component of multimorbidity in older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Corsonello A, et al. Geriatr Gernotol Int. 2017;17(11):1770-1788
Single-inhaler triple therapy fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol versus fluticasone furoate/vilanterol and umeclidinium/vilanterol in patients with COPD: results on cardiovascular safety from the IMPACT trial.
Day NC, Kumar S, Criner G, et al. Respir Res. 2020;21(1):139.
COPD and heart failure: differential diagnosis and comorbidity.
Güder G, Störk S. Herz. 2019;44(6):502-508.
The effect of exacerbation history on outcomes in the IMPACT trial.
Halpin DMG, Dransfield MT, Han MK, et al. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(5):1901921.
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiac events. A post hoc cohort analysis from the SUMMIT randomized clinical trial.
Kunisaki KM, Dransfield MT, Anderson JA, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;198(1):51-57.
Once-daily single-inhaler triple versus dual therapy in patients with COPD
Lipson DA, Barnhart F, Brealey N, et al. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(18):1671-1680.
Reduced all-cause mortality in the ETHOS trial of budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.
Martinez FJ, Rabe KF, Ferguson GT, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021;203(5):553-564.
Systematic review on long-term adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of COPD.
Miravitlles M, Auladell-Rispau A, Monteagudo M, et al. Eur Respir Rev. 2021;30(160):210075.
Metabolic effects associated with ICS in patients with COPD and comorbid type 2 diabetes: a historical matched cohort study.
Price DB, Russel R, Mares R, et al. PLoS One. 2016;11(9):e0163903.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure: a breathless conspiracy.
Pellicori P, Cleland JGF, Clark AL. Heart Fail Clin. 2020;16(1):33-44.
Triple inhaled therapy at two glucocorticoid doses in moderate-to-very-severe COPD.
Rabe KF, Martinez FJ, Ferguson GT, et al. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(1):35-48.
Consequences of chronic kidney disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Trudzinski FC, Alqudrah M, Omicor A, et al. Respir Res. 2019;20(1):151
Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with heightened cardiovascular risk (SUMMIT): a double-blind randomised controlled trial.
Vestbo J, Anderson JA, Brook RD, et al. Lancet. 2016;387(10030):1817-1826.
Incidence, risk factors, and prognostic implications of acute kidney injury in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD
Wan X, et al. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2020; 15:1085-1092
Effects of metformin use on total mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a matched-subject design.
Yen FS, Chen W, Wei JCC, Hsu CC, Hwu CM. PLoS One. 2018;13(10):e0204859.
Effects of dapagliflozin in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an analysis of DAPA-HF.
Dewan P, Docherty KF, Bengtsson O, et al. Eur J Heart Fail. 2021;23(4):632-643.
Metoprolol for the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD.
Dransfield MT, Voelker H, Bhatt SP, et al. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(24):2304-2314.
Clinical Practice Tools and Resources
The COPD Foundation Pocket Consultant Guide Mobile App
The COPD Pocket Guide, provided by the COPD Foundation, contains comprehensive management information as well as resource tools. It can be downloaded onto any mobile device.
Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnea Scale
The mMRC scale, provided by MDCalc, allows for the baseline stratification of dyspnea in COPD, as well as other respiratory diseases.
COPD Assessment Test (CAT)
The CAT, provided by the American Academy of Family Physicians, allows assessment of the global impact of COPD (cough, sputum, dyspnea, chest tightness) on patient health status.
Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9)
The PHQ-9 is a short, validated screening tool to assess a patient’s depression severity.
Patient Resources and Advocacy Organizations
The COPD Foundation Pocket Consultant Guide Patient-Focused Mobile App
The COPD Pocket Guide for Patients was designed to improve disease management and communication with a patient’s health care team. It includes patient resources such as inhaler and exercise videos as well as tools such as the wallet card and daily symptom tracker that help collect and share information with the health care team. It can be downloaded onto any mobile device.
American Lung Association
The American Lung Association is the leading organization working to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through education, advocacy, and research.
The COPD Foundation’s mission is to prevent and cure COPD and to improve the lives of all people affected by COPD.
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)
GOLD partners with health care professionals and public health officials to raise awareness of COPD and to improve prevention and treatment of this lung disease for patients around the world.
National Jewish Health
National Jewish Health integrates the latest scientific discoveries with coordinated care for lung, heart, and immune diseases. Their Patient Education Program provides many free educational opportunities and support groups to assist patients and caregivers with managing illnesses and chronic conditions, such as COPD.
Standards of medical care in diabetes—2021.
American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2021;44(suppl 1):S1-S232.
Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). 2021 report.
KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation management of chronic kidney disease.
KDIGO Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3(1):1-150.
Pharmacologic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline.
Nici L, Mammen MJ, Charbek E, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;201(9):e56-e69.
2021 Update to the 2017 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway for Optimization of Heart Failure Treatment: Answers to 10 Pivotal Issues About Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Solution Set Oversight Committee.
Maddox TM, Januzzi JL Jr, Allen LA, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021;77(6):772-810.