Management of severe asthma in the pediatric patient.
Management of severe asthma in the gravid patient.
Severe asthma and comorbid disease: the role of biologic therapies.
Understanding asthma phenotypes, endotypes, and mechanisms of disease.
Kuruvilla ME, et al. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2019;56(2): 219-233.
Predictive biomarkers for asthma therapy.
Medrek SK, et al. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2017;17(10):69.
Tezepelumab: a novel biological therapy for the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma.
Marone G, et al. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2019;28(11):931-940.
Tezepelumab in adults with uncontrolled asthma.
Corren J, et al. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(10):936-946. (Erratum: N Engl J Med. 2019;380(21):2082.)
Mepolizumab treatment in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.
Ortega HG, et al. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(13):1198-1207.
Reslizumab for inadequately controlled asthma with elevated blood eosinophil counts: results from two multicentre, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials.
Castro M, et al. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3(5):355-366.
Efficacy and safety of benralizumab for patients with severe asthma uncontrolled with high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists (SIROCCO): a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
Bleecker ER, et al. Lancet. 2016;388(10056):2115-2127.
Benralizumab, an anti-interleukin-5 receptor α monoclonal antibody, as add-on treatment for patients with severe, uncontrolled, eosinophilic asthma (CALIMA): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
FitzGerald JM, et al. Lancet. 2016;388(10056):2128-2141.
Dupilumab efficacy and safety in moderate-to-severe uncontrolled asthma.
Castro M, et al. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(26):2486-2496.
The effect of treatment with omalizumab, an anti-IgE antibody, on asthma exacerbations and emergency medical visits in patients with severe persistent asthma.
Bousquet J, et al. Allergy. 2005;60(3):302-308.
Biologic therapies for treatment of asthma associated with type 2 inflammation: effectiveness, value, and value-based price: final evidence report.
Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, 2018.
Co-morbidities in severe asthma: clinical impact and management.
Porsbjerg C, Menzies-Gow A. Respirology. 2017;22(4):651-661.
Oral corticosteroid exposure and adverse effects in asthmatic patients.
Sullivan PW, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(1):110-116.e7.
Doctor-patient communication: a review.
Ha JF, Longnecker N. Ochsner J. 2010; 10(1): 38-43.
Patient Advocacy Organizations and Resources
Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA)
AAFA is dedicated to improving the quality of life for people with asthma and allergic diseases through education, advocacy, and research.
American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI)
The ACAAI fosters a culture of collaboration and congeniality in which members work toward the common goals of patient care, education, advocacy, and research.
American Lung Association
The American Lung Association is the leading organization working to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through education, advocacy, and research.
American Thoracic Society (ATS)
The mission of the ATS is to improve health worldwide by advancing research, clinical care, and public health in respiratory disease, critical illness, and sleep disorders.
The CHEST Foundation creates trusted patient education resources and disease awareness campaigns that empower patients to engage in better managing their health.
Clinical Practice Guidelines
Difficult-to-treat & severe asthma in adolescent and adult patients.
Global Initiative for Asthma, 2019.
Management of severe asthma: a European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guideline.
Holguin F, et al. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(1). pii: 1900588.
Clinical Practice Tools
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Asthma Action Plans
These tools for asthma control were created following the evidence-based guidance published by the National Institutes of Health.
Asthma Control Test (ACT)
This 5-question test evaluates asthma control over the past 4 weeks on a 5-point Likert scale. A score of <20 on the ACT suggests asthma that is uncontrolled.
Nathan RA, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113(1):59-65.
Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ)
This 7-question assessment tool measures asthma control over the past 7 days. Six questions are self-administered by the patient, and 1 question requires a clinician’s input. Scores range from 1 (totally controlled) to 6 (severely uncontrolled).
Juniper EF, et al. Eur Respir J. 1999;14(4):902-907.
Asthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire (ATAQ)
This 4-question test assesses asthma control over the past 4 weeks. Each question has a possible score of 0 or 1; if the sum of the 4 question scores is >1, the patient’s asthma may be uncontrolled.
Vollmer WM, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999;160(5 Pt 1):1647-1652.
Shared Decision-Making Tool
The CHEST Foundation, Allergy and Asthma Network, and ACAAI have developed a shared-decision making tool for adults with severe asthma so that they may work collaboratively with clinicians to improve self-management skills, choose the best treatment plan, and increase adherence.