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Dolutegravir versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir both with dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy in adults with HIV-1 infection in whom first-line therapy has failed (DAWNING): an open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3b trial.

Aboud M, Kaplan R, Lombaard J, et al. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019;19(3):253-264.

Real-life experience with bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide in a large reference clinical centre.

Ambrosioni J, Rojas Liévano J, Berrocal L, et al. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2022;77(4):1133-1139.

Substantial decline in heavily treated therapy-experienced persons with HIV with limited antiretroviral treatment options.

Bajema KL, Nance RM, Delaney JAC, et al; Centers for AIDS Research Clinical Network of Integrated Systems (CNICS). AIDS. 2020;34(14):2051-2059.

Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors versus ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir for treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults with virological failure of a standard first-line ART regimen (SECOND-LINE): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study.

Boyd MA, Kumarasamy N, Moore CL, et al; SECOND-LINE Study Group. Lancet. 2013;381(9883):2091-2099.

The management of treatment-experienced HIV patients (including virologic failure and switches).

Cutrell J, Jodlowski T, Bedimo R. Ther Adv Infectious Dis. 2020;7:2049936120901395.

Lenacapavir: a first-in-class HIV-1 capsid inhibitor.

Dvory-Sobol H, Shaik N, Callebaut C, Rhee MS. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2022;17(1):15-21.

Phase 3 study of ibalizumab for multidrug-resistant HIV-1.

Emu B, Fessel J, Schrader S, et al. N Engl J Med. 2018;379(7):645-654.

Safety and efficacy of the HIV-1 attachment inhibitor prodrug fostemsavir in heavily treatment-experienced individuals: week 96 results of the phase 3 BRIGHTE study.

Lataillade M, Lalezari JP, Kozal M, et al. Lancet HIV. 2020;7(11):e740-e751.

Real life use of dolutegravir doravirine dual regimen in experienced elderly PLWH with multiple comorbidities and on polypharmacy: A retrospective analysis.

Mazzitelli M, Sasset L, Leoni D, Putaggio C, Cattelan AM. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(52):e28488.

Long-acting lenacapavir in people with multidrug resistant HIV-1: week 52 results.

Ogbuagu O, Segal-Maurer S, Brinson C, et al. Presented at: Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections; February 12-16, 2022; virtual conference. Abstract 491.

Potent antiviral activity of lenacapavir in phase 2/3 in heavily ART-experienced PWH.

Segal-Maurer S, Castagna A, Berhe M, et al.  CROI. March 6-10, 2021; Virtual Conference. Abstract 127.

The M184V mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase reduces the restoration of wild-type replication by attenuated viruses.

Wei X, Liang C, Götte M, Wainberg MA. AIDS. 2002;16(18):2391-2398.

Efficacy and safety of dolutegravir plus boosted-darunavir dual therapy among highly treatment-experienced patients.

Vizcarra P, Fontecha M, Monsalvo M, Vivancos MJ, Rojo A, Casado JL. Antivir Ther. 2019;24(6):467-471.

Linked Resources

Clinical Practice Guidelines

European AIDS Clinical Society.

EACS Guidelines 2021; v11.0; October 2021.

Human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance: 2018 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel.

Günthard HF, Calvez V, Paredes R, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(2):177-187.

Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in adults and adolescents living with HIV.

US Department of Health and Human Services

Clinician Resources

HIV resistance assays.

New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute.

HIV Drug Resistance Database.

Stanford University.

HIV drug resistance.

World Health Organization.

Patient and Caregiver Resources

AIDSMap Resources

NAM Publications

Resources for persons living with HIV

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

HIV resources

National Institutes of Health

Related activities
1.00 CME/CE

Virologic Failure in HIV

An Updated Clinician’s Guide to Assessment and Management

Faculty: Jürgen Rockstroh, MD; David A. Wohl, MD
Release: 06/17/2022
Expiration: 06/17/2023