Efficacy and safety of dolutegravir-rilpivirine for maintenance of virological suppression in adults with HIV-1: 100-week data from the randomised, open-label, phase 3 SWORD-1 and SWORD-2 studies.
Aboud M, Orkin C, Podzamczer D, et al. Lancet HIV. 2019;6(9):e576-e587.
Rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy at HIV diagnosis: definition, process, knowledge gaps.
Boyd MA, Boffito M, Castagna A, Estrada V. HIV Med. 2019;20(suppl 1):3-11.
Pharmacist-driven rapid ART reduces time to virologic suppression in Rhode Island.
Brotherton AL, Shah RB, Garland J, et al. 27th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2020; March 8-11, 2020; Boston, MA. Abstract 498.
RAPID antiretroviral therapy: high virologic suppression rates with immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation in a vulnerable urban clinic population.
Coffey S, Bacchetti P, Sachdev D, et al. AIDS. 2019;33(5):825-832.
A rapid entry program in the South: improving access to care and time to viral suppression.
Colasanti J, Sumitani J, Mehta CC, et al. 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2018; March 4−7, 2018; Boston, MA. Abstract 1109.
Assessing the Efficacy and Feasibility of a Retail Pharmacy-Based HIV Testing Program.
Collins BC, Bronson HW, Martin EG. 24th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) 2017; February 13-17, 2017; Seattle, WA. Abstract 962.
Efficacy and safety of switching to fixed-dose bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide from boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens in virologically suppressed adults with HIV-1: 48 week results of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.
Daar ES, DeJesus E, Ruane P, et al. Lancet HIV. 2018;5(7):e347-e356.
HIV viral load and transmissibility of HIV infection: undetectable equals untransmittable.
Eisinger RW, Dieffenbach CW, Fauci AS. JAMA. 2019;321(5):451-452.
Week 96 efficacy and safety results of the phase 3, randomized EMERALD trial to evaluate switching from boosted-protease inhibitors plus emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimens to the once daily, single-tablet regimen of darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) in treatment-experienced, virologically-suppressed adults living with HIV-1.
Eron JJ, Orkin C, Cunningham D, et al. Antiviral Res. 2019;170:104543.
Benefits and risks of rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy.
Ford N, Migone C, Calmy A. et al. AIDS. 2018;32:17-23.
Efficacy and safety of tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate given as fixed-dose combinations containing emtricitabine as backbones for treatment of HIV-1 infection in virologically suppressed adults: a randomised, double-blind, active-controlled phase 3 trial.
Gallant JE, Daar ES, Raffi F, et al. Lancet HIV. 2016;3(4):e158-e165.
Immediate versus deferred switching from a boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen to a dolutegravir-based regimen in virologically suppressed patients with high cardiovascular risk or age ≥50 years: final 96 week results of the NEAT022 study.
Gatell JM, Assoumou L, Moyle G, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;68(4):597-606.
Determination of optimized multidisciplinary care team for maximal antiretrovial therapy adherence.
Horberg MA, Hurley LB, Towner WJ, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012; 60(2):183-190.
Switching to doravirine/lamivudine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DOR/3TC/TDF) maintains HIV-1 virologic suppression through 48 weeks: results of the DRIVE-SHIFT Trial.
Johnson M, Kumar P, Molina JM, et al; for the DRIVE-SHIFT Study Group. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2019;81(4):463-472.
Linkage and antiretroviral therapy within 72 hours at a federally qualified health center in New Orleans.
Halperin J, Butler I, Conner K, et al. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2018;32(2):39-41.
Non-HIV comorbid conditions and polypharmacy among people living with HIV age 65 or older compared with HIV-negative individuals age 65 or older in the United States: a retrospective claims-based analysis.
Kong AM, Pozen A, Anastos K, et al. AIDS Pt Care STDS. 2019;33(3);93-103.
A pharmacist-led medication switch protocol in an academic HIV clinic: patient knowledge and satisfaction.
Lee SS, Havens JP, Sayles HR, et al. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):310.
A pharmacist-led program to evaluate and reduce polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing in older HIV-positive patients.
McNicholl IR, Gandhi M, Hare CB, et al. Pharmacotherapy. 2017;37(12):1498-1506.
Factors associated with antiretroviral therapy adherence among transgender women receiving HIV medical care in the United States.
Mizuno Y, Beer L, Huang P, Frazier EL. LGBT Health. 2017;4(3):181-187.
Switching to fixed-dose bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide from dolutegravir plus abacavir and lamivudine in virologically suppressed adults with HIV-1: 48 week results of a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, active-controlled, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.
Molina JM, Ward D, Brar I, et al. Lancet HIV. 2018;5(7):e357-e365.
Why don't patients take their drugs? The role of communication, context and culture in patient adherence and the work of the pharmacist in HIV/AIDS.
Penn C, Watermeyer J, Evans M. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;83(3):310-318.
The effect of same-day observed initiation of antiretroviral therapy on HIV viral load and treatment outcomes in a US public health setting.
Pilcher CD, Ospina-Norvell C, Dasgupta A, et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017;74(1):44-51.
Current and emerging two-drug approaches for HIV-1 therapy in ART-naïve and ART-experienced, virologically suppressed patients.
Rossetti B, Montagnani F, De Luca A. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018;19(7):713-738.
Interdisciplinary care team with pharmacist in a community-based HIV clinic.
Samuel O, Unonu JM, Dotson K, et al. J Natl Med Assoc. 2018;110(4):378-383.
Trends in the San Francisco human immunodeficiency virus epidemic in the "Getting to Zero" era.
Scheer S, Hsu L, Schwarcz S, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2018;66(7):1027-1034.
Switching antiretroviral regimes for the treatment of HIV: safety implications.
Utrillo L, Vidal F, Puig T, Domingo P. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2016;15(10):1349-1360.
HIV testing in community pharmacies and retail clinics: a model to expand access to screening for HIV infection.
Weidle PJ, Lecher S, Botts LW, et al. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2014; 54(5):486-492.
Clinical Practice Guidelines
Standards of Care for the Health of Transsexual, Transgender, and Gender Nonconforming People.
Coleman E, Bockting W, Botzer M, et al. 7th ed. East Dundee, Illinois: World Professional Association for Transgender Health; 2012.
Antiretroviral drugs for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults: 2018 recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel.
Saag MS, Benson CA, Gandhi RT, et al. JAMA. 2018;320(4):379-396.
ASHP [American Society of Health-System Pharmacists] guidelines on pharmacist involvement in HIV care.
Schafer JJ, Gill TK, Sherman EM, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73(7):468-494.
Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Adults and Adolescents With HIV.
US Department of Health and Human Services.
Guidelines for Managing Advanced HIV Disease and Rapid Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy.
World Health Organization, 2017.
HIV testing guidelines.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2020.
Food requirements for anti-HIV medications. Jones A. 2019.
Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Gilead Sciences, Inc., and the Center for AIDS Research at Emory University (CFAR), 2018.
Database of Antiretroviral Drug Interactions.
HIV InSite. University of California, San Francisco, 2019.
Harm Reduction Coalition.
HIV Testing in Retail Pharmacies (training for pharmacists and pharmacy staff).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2020.
Patient and Caregiver Resources
Resources for persons living with HIV
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Institutes of Health
UCSF Transgender Care
University of California, San Francisco