The HIF System in Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease
Anemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease.
Mehdi U, Toto RD. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(7):1320-1326.
Burden of illness for patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease and anemia in the United States: review of the literature.
van Nooten FE, Green J, Brown R, Finkelstein FO, Wish J. J Med Econ. 2010;13(2):241-256.
Prevalence of anemia in chronic kidney disease in the United States.
Stauffer ME, Fan T. PLoS One. 2014;9(1):e84943.
Pathophysiology of renal anaemia.
Geddes CC. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2019;34(6):921-922.
Intravenous iron in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. 2019;380(5):502].
Macdougall IC, White C, Anker SD, et al; for the PIVOTAL Investigators and Committees. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(5):447-458.
FIND-CKD: a randomized trial of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose versus oral iron in patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency anaemia.
Macdougall IC, Bock AH, Carrera F, et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014;29(11):2075-2084.
Roxadustat for anemia in patients with kidney disease not receiving dialysis.
Chen N, Hao C, Peng X, et al. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(11):1001-1010.
Roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients undergoing long-term dialysis.
Chen N, Hao C, Liu B-C. N Engl J Med. 2019;381(11):1011-1022.
OLYMPUS: a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, international study of roxadustat efficacy in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD and anemia.
Fishbane S, et al. American Society of Nephrology (ASN) Kidney Week; November 5-10, 2019; Washington, DC. Abstract TH-OR023.
ROCKIES: an international, phase 3, randomized, open-label, active-controlled study of roxadustat for anemia in dialysis-dependent CKD patients.
Fishbane S, et al. ASN Kidney Week; November 5-10, 2019; Washington, DC. Abstract TH-OR022.
HIMALAYAS: a phase 3, randomized, open-label, active-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in the treatment of anemia in incident-dialysis patients.
Provenzano R, et al. ASN Kidney Week; November 5-10, 2019; Washington, DC. Abstract TH-OR121.
Pooled efficacy and CV analyses of roxadustat in the treatment of anemia in CKD patients on and not on dialysis.
Provenzano R, et al. ASN Kidney Week; November 5-10, 2019; Washington, DC. Abstract FR-OR131.
A randomized, 29-day, dose-ranging, efficacy and safety study of daprodustat, administered three times weekly in patients with anemia on hemodialysis.
Bailey CK, Caltabiano S, Cobitz AR, Huang C, Mahar KM, Patel VV. BMC Nephrol. 2019;20(1):372.
Mechanisms of hypoxia signalling: new implications for nephrology.
Schödel J, Ratcliffe PJ. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2019;15(10):641-659.
Hypoxia-inducible factor activators in renal anemia: current clinical experience.
Sanghani NS, Haase VH. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2019;26(4):253-266.
Molidustat for the treatment of renal anaemia in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: design and rationale of two phase III studies.
Yamamoto H, Taguchi M, Matsuda Y, Iekushi K, Yamada T, Akizawa T. BMJ Open. 2019;9(6):e026704.
Iron regulation by molidustat, a daily oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Akizawa T, Macdougall IC, Berns JS, et al. Nephron. 2019;143(4):243-254.
Hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors to treat anemia in chronic kidney disease.
Sakashita M, Tanaka T, Nangaku M. Contrib Nephrol. 2019;198:112-123.
Prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors for the treatment of anemia in chronic kidney disease.
McMahon GM, Singh AK. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2019;28(6):600-606.
A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
Pfeffer MA, Burdmann EA, Chen C-Y, et al; for the TREAT Investigators. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(21):2019-2032.
Cardiovascular toxicity of epoetin-alfa in patients with chronic kidney disease.
McCullough PA, Barnhart HX, Inrig JK, et al. Am J Nephrol. 2013;37(6):549-558.
Effect of hemoglobin target on progression of kidney disease: a secondary analysis of the CHOIR (Correction of Hemoglobin and Outcomes in Renal Insufficiency) trial.
Inrig JK, Barnhart HX, Reddan D, et al. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012;60(3):390-401.
Anemia in conventional hemodialysis: finding the optimal treatment balance.
Hasegawa T, Koiwa F, Akizawa T. Semin Dial. 2018;31(6):599-606.
Anemia and cardiovascular risk: the lesson of the CREATE trial.
Locatelli F, Del Vecchio L, Pozzoni P. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17(12 suppl 3):S262-S266.
Clinical Management Guidelines
KDIGO clinical practice guideline for anemia in chronic kidney disease.
Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Anemia Work Group. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012;2(4):279-335.
FDA drug safety communication: modified dosing recommendations to improve the safe use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in chronic kidney disease.
US Food and Drug Administration. Updated August 4, 2017. Accessed May 26, 2020.
Anemia and chronic kidney disease.
National Kidney Foundation
Anemia in chronic kidney disease.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
NIH clinical research trials and you.
National Institutes of Health